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There are some prefixes which can be treated as root morphemes by some scientists, e. American lexicographers working on Webster dictionaries treat such words as compound words. British lexicographers treat such words as derived ones. Composition is the way of wordbuilding when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. The structural unity of a compound word depends upon: These are charachteristic features of compound words in all languages.
For English compounds some of these factors are not very reliable. As a rule English compounds have one uniting stress usually on the first component , e. We can also have a double stress in an English compound, with the main stress on the first component and with a secondary stress on the second component, e.
The third pattern of stresses is two level stresses, e. The third pattern is easily mixed up with word-groups unless they have solid or hyphonated spelling. Spelling in English compounds is not very reliable as well because they can have different spelling even in the same text, e. All the more so that there has appeared in Modern English a special type of compound words which are called block compounds, they have one uniting stress but are spelt with a break, e.
The semantic unity of a compound word is often very strong. In such cases we have idiomatic compounds where the meaning of the whole is not a sum of meanings of its components, e. In nonidiomatic compounds semantic unity is not strong, e. English compounds have the unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. They are used in a sentence as one part of it and only one component changes grammatically, e.
These girls are chatter-boxes. The sound pattern will be the same except for the stresses, e. Whereas for example in Russian compounds the stems are bound morphemes, as a rule.
The two-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones. Conversion is a characteristic feature of the English word-building system.
It is also called affixless derivation or zero-suffixation. Conversion is treated differently by different scientists, e. Smirntitsky treats conversion as a morphological way of forming words when one part of speech is formed from another part of speech by changing its paradigm, e. I need some good paper for my room. I paper my room every year. Conversion is the main way of forming verbs in Modern English. Verbs can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings because of that, e.
They have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting tools, machines, instruments, weapons, e.
Verbs can be also converted from adjectives, in such cases they denote the change of the state, e. Many nouns converted from verbs can be used only in the Singular form and denote momentaneous actions.
In such cases we have partial conversion. Such deverbal nouns are often used with such verbs as: In the process of communication words and word-groups can be shortened. The causes of shortening can be linguistic and extra-linguistic.
By extra-linguistic causes changes in the life of people are meant. In Modern English many new abbreviations, acronyms , initials, blends are formed because the tempo of life is increasing and it becomes necessary to give more and more information in the shortest possible time.
There are also linguistic causes of abbreviating words and word-groups, such as the demand of rhythm, which is satisfied in English by monosyllabic words. When borrowings from other languages are assimilated in English they are shortened. Here we have modification of form on the basis of analogy, e. Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening of words and word-groups only in written speech while orally the corresponding full forms are used.
They are used for the economy of space and effort in writing. The oldest group of graphical abbreviations in English is of Latin origin. In Russian this type of abbreviation is not typical. In these abbreviations in the spelling Latin words are shortened, while orally the corresponding English equivalents are pronounced in the full form,e. Some graphical abbreviations of Latin origin have different English equivalents in different contexts, e. There are also graphical abbreviations of native origin, where in the spelling we have abbreviations of words and word-groups of the corresponding English equivalents in the full form.
We have several semantic groups of them:. Sometimes in scientific degrees we have abbreviations of Latin origin, e. The reading of some graphical abbreviations depends on the context, e. Initialisms are the bordering case between graphical and lexical abbreviations. When they appear in the language, as a rule, to denote some new offices they are closer to graphical abbreviations because orally full forms are used, e. When they are used for some duration of time they acquire the shortened form of pronouncing and become closer to lexical abbreviations, e.
BBC is as a rule pronounced in the shortened form. In some cases the translation of initialisms is next to impossible without using special dictionaries. Initialisms are denoted in different ways. Very often they are expressed in the way they are pronounced in the language of their origin, e. This type of initialisms borrowed into other languages is preferable, e.
Some initialisms can form new words in which they act as root morphemes by different ways of wordbuilding:. A-bomb, U-pronunciation, V -day etc. In some cases the first component is a complete word and the second component is an initial abbreviation with the alphabetical pronunciation, e.
Three -Ds Three dimensions - стереофильм. Abbreviation of words consists in clipping a part of a word. As a result we get a new lexical unit where either the lexical meaning or the style is different form the full form of the word.
Abbreviation does not change the part-of-speech meaning, as we have it in the case of conversion or affixation, it produces words belonging to the same part of speech as the primary word, e. Mostly nouns undergo abbreviation, but we can also meet abbreviation of verbs, such as to rev from to revolve, to tab from to tabulate etc. But mostly abbreviated forms of verbs are formed by means of conversion from abbreviated nouns, e. Adjectives can be abbreviated but they are mostly used in school slang and are combined with suffixation, e.
As a rule pronouns, numerals, interjections. Lexical abbreviations are classified according to the part of the word which is clipped. Mostly the end of the word is clipped, because the beginning of the word in most cases is the root and expresses the lexical meaning of the word. This type of abbreviation is called apocope. In other cases the beginning of the word is clipped.
In such cases we have apheresis , e. Sometimes the middle of the word is clipped, e. Such abbreviations are called syncope. Sometimes we have a combination of apocope with apheresis,when the beginning and the end of the word are clipped, e. Sometimes shortening influences the spelling of the word, e. The same rule is observed in the following cases: The final consonants in the shortened forms are substituded by letters characteristic of native English words.
Sound interchange is the way of word-building when some sounds are changed to form a new word. It is non-productive in Modern English, it was productive in Old English and can be met in other Indo-European languages. The causes of sound interchange can be different. It can be the result of Ancient Ablaut which cannot be explained by the phonetic laws during the period of the language development known to scientists.
It can be also the result of Ancient Umlaut or vowel mutation which is the result of palatalizing the root vowel because of the front vowel in the syllable coming after the root regressive assimilation , e.
In many cases we have vowel and consonant interchange. In nouns we have voiceless consonants and in verbs we have corresponding voiced consonants because in Old English these consonants in nouns were at the end of the word and in verbs in the intervocal position, e.
Stress interchange can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: This phenomenon is explained in the following way: French verbs and nouns had different structure when they were borrowed into English, verbs had one syllable more than the corresponding nouns.
When these borrowings were assimilated in English the stress in them was shifted to the previous syllable the second from the end. Later on the last unstressed syllable in verbs borrowed from French was dropped the same as in native verbs and after that the stress in verbs was on the last syllable while in nouns it was on the first syllable.
Methods of linguistic analysis. Lexicology is a branch of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary of a language.
It is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes which make up words. Vocabulary of a language is the total sum of its words. General lexicology is a part of general linguistics; it is concerned with the study of vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Special lexicology is the lexicology of a particular language e. Lexical system is a coherent homogeneous whole constituted by interdependent elements of the same order related in certain specific ways.
Diachronic approach to language study deals with the origin, change and development of the words in the course of time. Synchronic approach to language study describes the vocabulary as it exists at a given time. Word is a speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and characterized by formal and semantic unity. Morpheme the smallest two-faced unit to be found within the word; it is studied on the morphological level of analysis.
Type of lexicology that deals with A. General lexicology the origin, change and development of the words in the course of time. Type of lexicology that studies B. Synchronic or descriptive words irrespective of the specific features of lexicology any particular language.
Type of lexicology that devotes its C. Historical or diachronic attention to the description of words of a lexicology particular language. Type of lexicology that is D. Special lexicology concerned with the vocabulary as it exists at a given time. Word is a speech unit used for the A St. Ullman purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and characterized by formal and semantic unity.
Word is a sequence of human sounds conveying a certain concept, idea in meaning which has gained general acceptance in a social group of people speaking the same language and historically connected. Word is meaningful unit which composes meaningful segments of some B F. Smirnitsky Literature 1 Антрушина, Г.
The volume of the vocabulary and its use. Changeability of the vocabulary. The causes of changeability. The basic word stock of the English language. Its relative stability and general use. The extension of the English Vocabulary. Characteristic features of the Modern English Vocabulary.
English vocabulary as a system. Different principles of grouping the vocabulary non semantic, semantic groupings of the vocabulary. Linguistic criteria of distinguishing lexico semantic groups. The theories of Semantic Fields. Literary colloquial words - are informal words that are used in everyday conversational speech both by cultivated and uneducated people of all age groups.
Slang language of a highly colloquial style, considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense. Dialects are regional forms of English. Learned words words mainly associated with the printed page. Archaic words archaisms words current in an earlier time but rare in present usage. Obsolete words words no longer in use; out of use for at least a century. Historisms are words denoting objects and phenomena which are things of the past and no longer exist.
Neologisms words which have recently appeared in the language. Basic stock a certain stable layer in the vocabulary, which changes very slowly and which is the basis for the further growth of the vocabulary.
Lexico-grammatical group is a class of words which have a common lexicogrammatical meaning, a common paradigm, the same substituting elements and possibly a characteristic set of suffixes, rendering the lexico-grammatical meaning. Semantic fields closely connected parts of vocabulary, each characterized by a common concept. Look up any words you do not know in your dictionary. Now you are talking!
What call would a woman with that strength in her have to die of influenza? What become of her new straw hat that should have come to me? Somebody pinched it; and what I say is, them as pinched it done her in. What does doing her in mean? Oh, that s the new small talk. To do a person in means to kill them. Does that mean that some girl has picked you up? From Pygmalion by B. Palmer, if I ask you a straight question, will you please give me a straight answer?
Is your mother divorced? That was what I had already gathered. They seem to be lost without a brass rail to rest their dogs on. From Short Stories by R. Lardner 1 Eliza means the money that Higgins gave her on their previous meeting. Write out the informal words and word-groups and say whether they are colloquial, slang or dialect. A Yankee passenger in an English train was beguiling his fellow passengers with tall stories 1 and remarked: A driver and his family had gathered bluebells, primrose roots, budding twigs and so on from a country lane.
Just before they piled into the car to move off Father approached a farmer who was standing nearby and asked: Describe the stylistic peculiarities of each extract in general and say whether the italicized represents learned words, terms or archaisms. Look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary. Aubrey bowed briefly towards the sergeant, I should instruct you that Mr.
I want you to keep an eye on that air-speed indicator. Remember that an airplane stays in the air because of its forward speed. If you let the speed drop too low, it stalls and falls out of the air. Any time the ASI shows a reading near , you tell George instantly. George, you watch the artificial horizon Climb and descent indicator should stay at zero. He has learnt much from Mr.
Cochran; there is also a touch of Hammersmith in his ebullient days. The speed, the light, the noise, the deployment of expensively coloured figures From a theatrical review 2. Do, dost, does, you, thee, ye, thou, horse, though, albeit, also, eke, spring, vernal, said, quoth, told, maiden, girl, haply, perhaps, ere, before.
Hath, dost, thee, didst, wight, ye, whilom, sooth, yon, rhymeth, sate. Translate them into Russian. Bade, spouse, dire, aught, quoth, kine, swain, courser, ire, charger, thy, thine, troth, hath, albeit. Comment on their formation. State to what sphere of human activity they belong.
Literature 1 Антрушина, Г. The notion of etymology. The etymological background of the English vocabulary. Words of native origin, words of Indo European origin and words of Common Germanic origin.
The main features of genuine English words. Loan words borrowed words in English. Sources and ways of borrowing into English. Assimilation of loan words. Interrelation between native and borrowed elements in English. Etymological doublets of different origin. Etymology is a science of the origin and history of words.
Etymology of words origin of words. Native words are those that belong to the original English stock. Тексты для аудирования Казань - УДК New words are created every day and their number in English is. First Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he. The words are listed in rank order. Oh, it s a mystery novel. I m almost at the end!
I love a good mystery Agatha Christy, Sherlock Holmes Look at the words in the following sentences: Bill hit Bob Bob hit Bill. They are the United States. This is my car. Summary and context This unit looks at a recount text in a form that is not often used in schools a police report. It enables pupils to consolidate skills previously covered in recount work and apply them.
You will find an extract below. Some of the words are missing. Fill in the gaps with the words. Денотативное и коннотативное значение. Внутренняя форма мотивировка слова. Московский Государственный Университет, Настоящая работа была задумана и начата еще при жизни ее автора.
Безвременная смерть помешала ее выполнению самим профессором А. Смирницким, и эта задача пала на его учеников. При написании книги в основу были положены лекции А.